From Mitchell To Spirit
A look back at changing technology and its effect on personnel safety.


This is a list of all of the comments I have made so far on my class mates Blogs.

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So far this semester my life has been utterly hectic and stressful, with organic chemistry, physics, ecology and English.  My workload has been insane, for the most part cutting me off from the world around me.  I haven’t been able to keep up on much news or world events, but that is not to say that I have not had any way of connecting.  This blog, that originally began as an assignment for class has become a way for me to look outside my bubble of science, and spend time learning about history and what is going on right now.  It has become my escape from the monotony of dissecting molecules or figuring out how far a ball will travel, and I have thoroughly enjoyed researching, writing, and posting every week, as well as reading what my peers have found interesting and what their opinions are of the world around them. 

Beyond just connecting with my world, I was able to gain new insight, knowledge and understanding, both of the experiences of others living in or around war, as well as being introduced to new, very powerful technologies.  Never in history has such a wide breadth of information ever been assembled in the same place, never connected together and accessible as to anyone with an internet connection to find out literally anything they need to know.  I have seen how the internet can connect people on opposite sides of the globe, and I have seen what is sometimes what is lost through the transfer into the digital medium.  More importantly I have seen how the internet has allowed anyone to voice their opinions for free, unlike in the past where people had to pay and have their thoughts published in a book or periodical.  No one is censored or ignored, everyone has their chance to make a difference.  What the internet offers to the masses is unrivaled by anything in history, and I truly believe that it is one of the most important technologies that has ever been developed.

So, this final post signifies the end of the journey this blog has taken me through, but that does not necessarily mean that I won’t open another in the future.  I am still very new to the blogging community, but I am already slightly hooked.  I look forward to passing on my knowledge and insight onto those that are willing to hear and read, and reconnect with the world, that is of course after I finish this semester and get a lighter workload.


Lately I have been talking and focusing on the Holocaust of WWII, the trials and plights that the Jews endured, but they were not the only ones to suffer throughout the war. When the Nazi took prisoners of war, they treated them much like how they did the Jews, locking them in train cars, taking their cloths and placing them inside old concentration camps that once held Jews that had been killed. However, the conditions at which they were kept were on the whole much better, they got more food, rest and were treated more simply as prisoners, not insects that were there only to be killed. While in capitation many of the prisoners were forced into labor to help fuel the Nazi war machine, a lot of hard labor, but again they were still allowed to rest and eat more food, they were still subjected to conditions that were worlds above that that the Jews had to endure. Those that were captured by the Japanese endured something much worse with the brutality about equaling the Holocaust, but I will save that for a later post and focus on the Nazi.

What does imprisonment and war do to someone who is not meant to take part in it? I have recently been reading Slaughter House-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, in which his main character Billy Pilgrim is sent into WWII as a chaplain’s assistant, and is captured by the Nazis and forced to work in one of their camps until the end of the war. Billy is a very frail boy in comparison to the other soldiers he is surrounded by, and seems to break under the strain. He starts to hallucinate and believes he is traveling though time and was abducted by aliens. The whole book jumps around from time period to time period and can be very confusing, but this is just a very elaborate way to express the complexity of war and its effects on people. Throughout the portions of the book where he is being transported to the camps and is interned in them very much reflect the Holocaust and how prisoners were treated by the Nazi.

The effects that Billy felt are not really that unique to just him, he exhibits many symptoms of PTSD or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, something that is becoming more common with soldiers returning from war. Sgt Clive Rowlands was a soldier during the Bosnian conflict in the late 1990s, he witnessed many horrible things that scarred him deep within. Unlike Billy though his illness was triggered by a car accident, after which all he could see were vivid flashbacks of past events, images that would not go away so he began to drink.

“There were mass graves and bodies everywhere. I saw a 78-year-old blow himself up with a hand grenade in front of me, and I’ve found babies, women, children mutilated.”

Seeing these types of images is very common in war veterans, and is not an easy thing to treat. Many feel lost because of this very problem, they lose hope, their marriages ends, many cannot deal with it and either die or go insane. Thankfully it is much easier now to determine if someone has been effected by this, and treatments are becoming available that can help those afflicted get back on their feet and get back to their lives.

‘Ghosts of War’ Leave Mental Trauma

by: Ruth Clegg,  BBC News


by: Kurt Vonnegut


Times are changing….. In the last century many large, dynamic events have helped shape the world into a more tolerant, diverse and equal society.  At least in the United States we have seen the introduction of equality, the banning and equalization of alcohol, the two largest wars in human history, advancements and major leaps in technology, the list keeps going on and on.  However, one truly sticks out rest, the improvement of women’s rights and their gender role in society.  They began the century as basically baby making house wives controlled my men, to being on almost equal footing with men, although we are unfortunately not quite there yet.

In class we are currently reading Since You Went Away by Judy Litoff and David Smith, which is a very interesting book that has compiled many letters from WWII, written by the wives and girlfriends of the soldiers that fought overseas.  It presents the world with a view of the war that not many people ever hear about, everyone knows about McArthur and his raids over Japan, or Oppenheimer and the creation of the atomic bomb, but how many stories have been told about those left behind.  The truth is that not many women left at home to take care of the house and family, have ever had their story told, but if it weren’t for them, the war could never have been won.  The United States had to quickly adapt as women began replacing me at almost every job, ship building, ammunition production, tank manufacturing, all of these helped to drastically and rapidly earn women respect and a more prominent place in society.

However, there was still a lot of backlash by society with these changes, women still had to support the men, and anything they didn’t like had to be kept to themselves.  In the book one women, Anne Gudis, displayed her anger toward a soldier by writing him four very blunt and to the point lines,

Mr. Kramer:

Go To Hell!

With Love,

Anne Gunis

Somehow this letter got published in a magazine and society reacted in an outrage, writing to her and reprimanding her for lowering moral of the soldiers, and being unpatriotic. 

Today women are still left at home while men go off to fight, but things are changing… Women can now go along with the men and fight alongside them, as well as wives and families can travel with their solders and live relatively close to where they are fighting.  There are still many limits on what they can do while overseas, mainly because they are so near the fighting.  Many of the same feelings felt by those left at home during WWII are still being felt by those that are left at home today, and even those that travel with their soldiers, feelings of monotony, loneness and an empty void where someone special is missing in your life.  While reading blogs I found one written by Tracy Moulton Peterson, a Marine wife who is living with her husband and children in Germany.  I am going to end this post with something that she wrote in one of her recent blogs really drives home how this affects those not fighting.

When we first arrived here and still lived in the hotel on base, it immediately struck me that every woman I saw appeared to have given up. Now I get it. Without someone to notice the effort, why bother? There’s not a lot of personal satisfaction gained from the repetitive chores of domestic life. I was so happy this weekend to finish bringing up a cord of wood from the driveway to the basement, because the cord of wood isn’t going to reappear in the driveway tomorrow, strewn about. I can’t say the same, metaphorically, about the laundry and the dishes. Those things always reappear, strewn about.
Having a life outside the house is, in my opinion, the most important thing a military spouse can do for him- or herself. When the service member is gone, there has to be something to fill the space.

 Since You Went Away

By: Judy Barrett Litoff and David Smith

Real Life as a Marine Wife

by Tracy Moulton Peterson


Anywhere there is human life and any sort of establishment, an economy is formed.  Rules are established and civil law is created, forming a hierarchy of command, giving those higher up in society more power, respect and influence.  Like I stated earlier every social meeting forms economies, even places such as WWII Nazi concentration camps are not exempt from this aspect of human life.  The only factors that define these economies and help separate them from main stream economies are: How are they run? What is their currency? What is their purpose?

For the most part these economies are set up to allow for the survival of the strong, those that could get what they needed from others had a better chance of surviving.  Every purchase or trade that occurred was a risk, first you had to give up portions of your ration of bread or soup, articles of clothing, or favors toward others.  If you were caught by the SS you would either be beaten or killed, but if you didn’t trade you would die of hunger or cold, leaving no clear path for people to choose.  Second, there was no guarantee that you would get what you paid for, or that they would do what they said.

In class right now we are reading the book Survival in Auschwitz by Primo Levi.  He was and Italian Jew that was captured and spent about a year in the camp.  Throughout the book he recounts many horrible events that occurred, but there is always the same underlying themes in every chapter, survival and economy.  He survived because of his participation and being able to find what he needed.  There is something one must wonder about this type of economy, is it like a full sized one, like how the world economy of today functions?  Levi touches on this question in throughout his book, with the dealings of their bread based economy. 

In the best cases they possess a miserable half-ration of bread which, with painful effort, they have saved since the morning, in senseless hope of a chance to make an advantageous bargain with some ingenuous person, unaware of the prices at the moment.  Some of these, with savage patience, acquire with their half-ration two pints of soup which, once in their possession, they subject to a methodical examination with a view to extract the few pieces of potato lying at the bottom; this done, they exchange if for bread, and bread for another two pints of denaturalize, and so on until their nerves are exhausted or until some victim, catching them in the act, inflicts on them a severe lesson, exposing them to public derision.

Why does this sound so familiar?  We don’t live in a death camp, but regardless of where we live, we are still effected by changes in the economy.  At this very moment ours is in pretty poor shape, for the past few years there has been a decline in the overall economic health and productivity, no one could afford to buy anything, go see doctors, even pay bills and insurance.  However a recent article from the BBC suggests that the economy is beginning to recover, with a 3.5% increase over the last few months.  Just like in Auschwitz, our economy had taken a hit and now seems like it might be on the road to recovery.  Events like this can be seen throughout the world, not just in isolated cases such as a Nazi death camp.

I find it quite miraculous that men and women that were trapped and treated like animals somehow formed a working economy to help survive.  Who knows, maybe the idea of economics have become part of human nature, maybe we can no longer exist without it.  Think about this, is our current economy really that different than those found in death camps? Were the Jewish people really and lower than anyone else?

Survival In Auschwitz: If This Is A Man

by: Primo Levi


US Ecomony is Growing Once Again

From the BBC


What defines a good story? Is it who tells it? Where it is told? What its told about? Or maybe who it is told…  Everyone has sat with their parents and heart stories of grand adventures, exciting experiences and romantic moments.  I’m willing to bet that almost everyone has read a book and has been transported to another person’s world and time.  Living the adventurers of others and learning life changing lessons.

This week I must once again deviate from my regular topic, with regard that we are still focused on the Holocaust.  I must reiterate the fact that no technology used to further the means and efficiency of the Nazi death machine ever deserves to be glorified, so for this post I want to look at the introduction of graphic novels and how they have been recieved throughout the recent past.

In the public eye these are all acceptable ways of portraying a story, but have you ever considered the power of a graphic novel?  Are they as effective and as socially allowed as a form of story telling?  Many do not think so, but comics can possess powerful messages, sometimes holding a greater emotion or a greater appeal to a broader audience.  They are able to pass on these stories to those that do not like reading, burrowing the stories from books and hiding them in a less daunting, more desirable package.

However, some may think that graphic novels cannot handle portraying some of the heavier materials, things that haunt us, things like the Holocaust of the Jews during WWII, but Arthur Spieleman has been able to do this in a very accurate and complex manor.  In class we have been reading his novel “Maus” he chronicles the events that his father experienced throughout the war, effectively spinning a story full of sorrow, pain, emptiness, anger, almost every emotion one can think of.  Not only does he express a very powerful message, be does so in a way that makes the reader not want to put the book down, rivaling this effect found in an exceptional book.  So, how can this form of expression not be a valid form of literature?

Since their inception, comic books have been thought of as just a form of entertainment.  To the general public all they are and ever will be is just section of the news paper that makes you laugh, no real story or deep meanings.  Those that thought otherwise were often of as being slight social outcasts.  For example look at the stereotypic comic book reader, comic book guy from The Simpsons on tv.  He is lazy, and socially immature, not being able to connect or have relationships.  This stereotype however is nowhere close to reality, graphic novels are becoming more common, and even children’s picture books can be considered along these lines of literature.  Even the New York Times has started a section of thier news paper dedicated to the positive exposure of graphic novels, whith novels like “Maus” being seen on its top ten list periodically.

So, I argue that graphic novels can indeed tell a powerful story, they often present a clearer picture, and are more accessible to people.  Over the past few decades they have evolved into something more then just a form of entertainment.  They are now a very effective means of passing on important messages, and allowing  everyone the chance to experience wonderful stories.


by Arthur Spiegelman 1986


New York Times Graphic Novel List

September 17, 2009


Graphic Novel 

by Wikipedia


Comic Book Guy

by Wikipedia


What is the meaning of life? Are we meant to work hard and enjoy life or are some of us destined to suffer horrendously at another’s hand? Who has the right to decide we are not worthy to live? The answer should be no one can make that choice for us, but throughout history many have decided that they do possess this power and what has ensued have been the worst tragedies in all of mankind’s history.

I need to take a step back from the over arching topic of my blog for this post. This posts focuses on the holocaust during WWII and although technology was used as a means to carryout the extermination of “those not worthy of life”, nothing that could be used to cause such tragedy and murder deserves to be talked about. Doing so would glorify its existence, and thus give support to the horribly misplaced ideologies and beliefs that lead to their use.

In class we recently viewed a documentary that compiled footage taken when the allied forces liberated concentration camps, such as Dachau and Auschwitz. Although I have seen many videos of the camps, this footage horrified me beyond what I thought possible. It consisted of over an hours of videos of dead bodies, sickly men, women and children, and worst of all the expressions on the faces of those Nazi officers that ran the camps. They did not show any remorse or guilt for what they had done, as they were forced to burry millions of the dead. I seemed like they didn’t feel anything, and instead of being horrified they acted like they were just moving around sacks of flour. No emotion, no sorrow, no fear, how could it be easy for them?

This could very well be mankind’s darkest hour, it seems unthinkable now that this occurred in our world only 65 years ago, but the same kind of brutal killing is going on right now. From Saddam Hussein’s massacre of the Kurds because of their difference in religion, to the recent massacre that took place in guinea because of protests to the Junta’s rule of the country keep happening every day. This is almost impossible to believe because of how “civilized” our planet has become, but the truth is that many places are still living hells for those that live there. Our vision is blurred because we are sheltered in our high class countries and protected by distance from the events. Sure, we can see and hear about them on the news, but they don’t really affect us, seeming like they occur a world away, seen through a small box of light.

There is an easy and somewhat elegant way to describe time and history, events endlessly repeat themselves in cycles. Peace, war, conflict, progress, evolution and tragedy, are repeated over and over again almost as if mankind is dancing a majestic waltz. So, knowing that humans are capable of such horrible things and that these events are not limited to our past and present, why can’t we learn to live without creating horrors for our descendants to remember?

I once again leave you with a question, if life is so precious and fragile, and mankind has so many terrifying mistakes in its past, then why do these mistakes keep being repeated? Why are we trapped in this cycle, dancing our waltz forever?

WWII-Nazi Holocaust Video (part 1/8) by Alfred Hitchcock



Guinea’s Junta Leader Denies Masterminding Massacre

By: Peter Clottey 08 October 2009 VOA News 


Protect the Kurds

By: Peter W. Galbraith 11 August 2002 The Washington Post


As time passes, war changes, it grows stronger and more destructive, new weapons and tactics evolve, technology advances, but at what cost.  Have we ever stopped to think how soldiers have changed?  Or more importantly war’s effects on soldiers and how they cope and deal with stress, fear and the possibility of death around every corner?  With the development of modern psychology what used to be known as shellshock during WWI we now know as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).  Many of my classmates have touched on this subject in their previous posts, usually on the treatment and how to deal with the disorder.  So I want to take a slightly different approach to the topic, instead of treatment I want to take a closer look at the causes, what triggers this reaction.

Right now in class we are reading a play called “The Ghosts May Laugh” by Stuart D. Lee, which is set in the trenches of France and Belgium during WWI.  Throughout the play we see many characters that have succumbed to some form of shellshock, Private Strangwick, Private Stone and to some extent Officer Jones.  Each had to stand up to the constant bombardment of shells falling all around them, mustard gas bombs being set off and the utter horrors of seeing men all around them die every day.  Where each of these soldiers differed was what circumstance “broke” them, what set them off and drastically changed them.  For Private Strangwick it was the sight of the soldier’s bodies that were used to construct the now infamous Napoo Trench combined with witnessing his Uncle accompanied by the ghost of his dead aunt as he went to commit suicide.  In the case of Private Stone the reason for his condition is not well know, but its effects caused him to withdraw into himself and nothing could penetrate the protective shell he had put up, he essentially became a body with no soul.  However the effects on Officer Jones are not as clear and do not seem to be as severe, although he shows signs of having problems, his only reaction besides hallucinating at the beginning of the play, is that he becomes very severe and cold towards everyone around him. 

I find it interesting also how the view of this reaction has changed over the years.  I found in a short guide called Report of the War Office Committee of Enquiry into “Shell-Shock” that was published the British Military in 1922 that Shellshock is not an honorable or acceptable way to get oneself removed from the front lines, during WWI it was only treated as a weakness of character rather than a crippling disease.  On top of this the accepted method of treatment was an “establishment of an atmosphere of cure”, where all that was need was a short rest and recuperation and then the soldiers were sent back to the front line. 

Now in our modern world the occurrence of PTSD is much more common and it is now considered more than just a character weakness.  This fact however is not really that surprising, less people are dying, but our guns are louder, our planes are bigger and our bombs make a bigger BOOM.  These advancements have helps us see PTSD as a real disease and many methods are being used to help find a way to treat it.  Through tests it was been found that by using dogs as a treatment method, 80% of soldiers that are affected by the disorder have less severe or even no symptoms whatsoever.  Another, almost unimaginable treatment involves the recreation of the events that are haunting the person and causing all of their symptoms.  Through the use of 3-D software and certain scents and sounds therapists are able to recreate the events that have caused so many issues and are able to help the sufferer deal with what happened and move past it.  However this method is still to new, not being able to show how many it could help, but so far noticeable improvements have been made in the soldiers it is being tried on.  This new method has raised the question if these recreation of events are to powerful for people to handle, but not enough has been done with them to determine if that view has any really truth to it.

So once again I will leave you with a question, a question that has not really changed over my last few posts and more importantly over the years.  Technology and the was wars are fought have drastically changed, but has war actually changed at all?

“The Ghosts May Laugh”

by: Stewart D. Lee 2005

Combat Stress Reaction


Army Studies Use of Dogs for PTSD

UPI September 5, 2009

Virtual Therapy Used to Heal PTSD

By: Geoff Ziezulewicz

Stars and Stripes June 29, 2009


How do you communicate? Do you use a cell phone, or email, or even text messages? In this present time it almost seems impossible for anyone to communicate at all before these technologies existed.  Now you can get up to the minute news, there is no more waiting for the news paper, or waiting for letters to arrive.  On top of this with the click of a button you can listen to President Obama speak about plans for the future and how the war in Iraq is going.  I recently listened to a podcast from him during a memorial ceremony where he bestowed the Medal of Honor on a fallen soldier by the name of Sgt. 1st Class Monti and although it was very moving and heartfelt, there was no real connection or feeling of loss with hearing the news.  It almost felt like listening to a news show about someone a world away from me, his loss was great and he deserved this honor, but I can’t help but think that maybe this event is not really meant for me, and my knowing has no real benefit for his loved ones.  I keep asking myself, why must the world know everything?

In class we are reading Testament of Youth by Vera Brittain, a memoir of her experiences as a nurse during WWI.  Her fiancé Roland was a soldier on the front line in France and Belgium, while she was in England tending to the sick and wounded that were sent home from the front.  Their only means of communication was through numerous, exceptionally passionate letters.  However, unlike today with our instant gratification, their letters would take days and days to arrive, if they ever arrived at all.  Letters going to the front would sometimes get mixed up with the thousands of others that were going to soldiers, held at the command base miles away from where its recipient is stationed, or even lost forever in the mud or in some ship during the crossing of the English Channel.  Throughout this whole period Vera always had the fear in the back of her mind that Roland might be killed in action, that fear building with every bit of news from the front involved young soldiers dying.  Until she received a letter from him she had no way for knowing if he was one of those fallen soldiers.  There is a very powerful passage from her book that really drives home how she must have felt.

The usual rumour that the 6th Sherwood Foresters had been in the battle threw the whole of Buxton into a state of apprehension, and though, once again, this particular battalion has missed the worst of the fighting, news soon came of young officers killed in action who as boys had been with Edward at his Buxton day-school.  But of Roland, still, there was no news at all.

“Dreams, ideals, impersonal visions bow down to-day before this terrible human love,” my diary records, “and in this hour my heart knows only one prayer.”

Back then each community was essentially a very large family, everyone knew everyone and a loss for one was a loss for all.  So when Vera finds out later on that Roland has died, his loss is genuinely felt by everyone he was close to, his family, friends, neighbors, Vera’s family, the list just continues to build.  However, only the people that personally knew him were really affected by his death, not the entire country. 

Now, let’s jump back to present day, where the same feelings can be seen.  Only a few days ago on September 21st there was a Black Hawk helicopter that crashed in Baghdad, killing its pilot and injuring 12 others, this news however did not include any names, so just like for Vera, anyone connected with soldiers in Iraq would begin to fear more and more that their loved one had died.  However, now we can instantly get an email response from that loved one, telling us that they are alright and the fear quickly fades. 

So in this respect technology is wonderful, being able to talk and learn things instantly, but what have we lost in translation.  People that have no reason to be involved in personal matters are, nothing can ever really be private anymore.  Again I will ask you how you communicate, but this time I ask, where is your personal touch?  Or is it possible that that touch may be slowly fading away like a cherished memory?

Black Hawk Crash Kills One Servicemember  September 21, 2009

Ceremonies for Sgt. 1st Class Monti

Army Podcast: Soldiers Radio News  September 18, 2009


World War I was known by many names, The Great War, The War to End All Wars, but as time continued we saw that these names, while appropriate at the time, were not the right names for the history books.   However, this war was the foundation and testing ground for many of the technologies and tactics that have been used ever since.  During the four long years of the war the first airplanes were used in combat and aerial reconnaissance, zeppelins were used for the first aerial bombings of enemy cities, the first tanks were used, effectively making trench warfare obsolete for the future and also many new and terrible weapons such as chemical warfare and large scale artillery.  The war eventually boiled down to a conflict between old tactics and new technology, which resulted in over 15 million casualties.

Not understanding how to use these technologies effectively led to far more casualties than any other modern war up until that point, forcing soldiers who, in all reality, were still children, to deal with running emotions that many were unable to full grasp a hold of.  Every day they were subjected to death, bleeding, injury, ferocious gas and artillery strikes, never knowing whether they will die or their buddy next to them, always living in constant fear of what was to come. 

Now it may seem odd that enemies and allies could be united together in any sort of way, but the experiences of both sides of the war were very similar, and many of the sentiments held by either side’s soldiers were same.  Questions such as: Why am I fighting to kill someone I don’t know? Why am I fighting people that I don’t personally have any grievance with? Why is my country involved when there is no real threat against where I live?  I can only imagine that these questions ran over and over and over through countless soldiers heads, and in many cases could very well be the final thoughts and words uttered before life left them.  No better example of this can be found then through the poetry of Edward Thomas, in his poem, This Is No Case of Petty Right or Wrong, he very adamantly speaks out to his father about his indifference to the war, which can help us see insight into the questions I posed above.

This is no case of petty right or wrong

This is no case of petty right or wrong 
That politicians or philosophers 
Can judge.  I hate not Germans, nor grow hot 
With love of Englishmen, to please newspapers. 

Full Poem

Throughout the rest of the poem takes this idea of not hating his enemy, using it indirectly to question the motivation of his countries involvement in the war, but like most other soldiers, he finishes by saying that even though he doesn’t believe in what is going on he will still support and fight for his country. 

So how does this translate into our current world, where the technology is correctly used and the world is supposed to be smarter, but this is not entirely the case, or my earlier questions should not exist anymore.  The answer to this is that these issues are still ever present.  While searching through blogs for some thoughts and inspiration for this post I ran across a noncommissioned officer in the US Army who goes by the name Buck Sargent, and while reading though his blog I came across this passage titled, The Battered Bastards of Baghdad, in it he wrote:

“I’ve written before (and will likely write again) that many soldiers have a similar love/hate relationship with Uncle Sam. It is a truism that no one can have as much pride in and simultaneous disgust for the United States Army as one who has actually served in it. I currently loathe the Army and all the indignity that comes with it, yet once I finally say goodbye and depart back home to Ft. Living Room, no one will be more proud of a five-year period in their life willingly given up to the needs of their country than will I.”

So, I leave you with this thought, if almost a 100 year difference can creates the same uncertainties and at the same time, such strong pride and respect for one’s country, then how has war really changed at all.  New tactics and weapons are important, but if the soldiers feel the same way how will civilized man ever reach the point where war is obsolete and needless killing will come to an end…

Five Years & Change by Buck Sargent

December 29, 2007

“This is no case of petty right or wrong” by Edward Thomas

December 26, 1915